Gaskets are mechanical seals, usually formed like a ring and used for sealing of flange joints.In general, gaskets should not be reused.
Various types of gaskets are available depending upon their construction, materials, and features.
They are available with an inner ring and outer ring, which is also known as the cantering ring.Ring Joint Gaskets are used with Ring Type Joint (RTJ) flanges.
Thus, the hardness of the gasket is kept less than the hardness of the groove to achieve coining i.e.
bringing two metal surfaces of different hardness so tightly together that the softer surface deforms to match harder surface exactly in shape and finish.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piping_and_plumbing_fitting
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) develop standards and regulation codes.
For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a standard providing a wide range of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with safety, security and design standards.5 Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction due to poorly understood engineering principles.
Thin and brittle metal shells can rupture, while poorly welded or riveted seams could open up, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized steam.
At best, this increases energy costs and can lead to poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable operation.
Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes can also spray scalding-hot steam and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who load the coal into the fire chamber.
Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to operate factories can potentially demolish entire buildings.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler#Safety
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications.Heating and cooling, waste removal, and potable water delivery are among the most common uses for plumbing however plumbing's not limited to these applications.1 Plumbing utilizes pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids.2 Trades that work with plumbing such as boilermakers, plumbers, and pipefitters are referred to the plumbing trade. In the Developed world plumbing infrastructure is critical for public health and sanitation. Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumbing#Systems.