Wikipedia about Valves

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A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways.

Valves are technically fittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category.

In an open valve, fluid flows in a direction from higher pressure to lower pressure. The word is derived from the Latin valva, the moving part of a door, in turn from volvere, to turn, roll. The simplest, and very ancient, valve is simply a freely hinged flap which drops to obstruct fluid (gas or liquid) flow in one direction, but is pushed open by flow in the opposite direction. This is called a check valve, as it prevents or "checks" the flow in one direction. Modern control valves may regulate pressure or flow downstream and operate on sophisticated automation systems. Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valve

Employment contracts signed by a plumber

Persons employed as plumbers can sign various contracts of employment.

They work full-time in a variety of plants, hydraulic or sign contracts-orders for certain services.

Some plumbers also run his own business, under which perform minor plumbing services.

Nowadays, self-employed persons often assume hydraulic websites, which include information on the services rendered by them and their price list.

They also by posting information about their activities on bulletin boards, and even spread leaflets around the city to encourage use of their services.
So they can get regular customers, who will often benefit from their services.

Fact from Wikipedia

The difference between pipes and tubes is simply in the way it is sized.
PVC pipe for plumbing applications and galvanized steel pipe for instance, are measured in IPS (iron pipe size).
Copper tube, CPVC, PeX and other tubing is measured nominally, which is basically an average diameter.
These sizing schemes allow for universal adaptation of transitional fittings.

For instance, 1/2" PeX tubing is the same size as 1/2" copper tubing.

1/2" PVC on the other hand is not the same size as 1/2" tubing, and therefore requires either a threaded male or female adapter to connect them. When used in agricultural irrigation, the singular form "pipe" is often used as a plural.7 Pipe is available in rigid "joints", which come in various lengths depending on the material. Tubing, in particular copper, comes in rigid hard tempered "joints" or soft tempered (annealed) rolls. PeX and CPVC tubing also comes in rigid "joints" or flexible rolls. The temper of the copper, that is whether it is a rigid "joint" or flexible roll, does not affect the sizing.7 The thicknesses of the water pipe and tube walls can vary.

Pipe wall thickness is denoted by various schedules or for large bore polyethylene pipe in the UK by the Standard Dimension Ratio (SDR), defined as the ratio of the pipe diameter to its wall thickness.

Pipe wall thickness increases with schedule, and is available in schedules 20, 40, 80, and higher in special cases. The schedule is largely determined by the operating pressure of the system, with higher pressures commanding greater thickness. Copper tubing is available in four wall thicknesses: type DWV (thinnest wall; only allowed as drain pipe per UPC), type 'M' (thin; typically only allowed as drain pipe by IPC code), type 'L' (thicker, standard duty for water lines and water service), and type 'K' (thickest, typically used underground between the main and the meter). Because piping and tubing are commodities, having a greater wall thickness implies higher initial cost. Thicker walled pipe generally implies greater durability and higher pressure tolerances.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_pipe#Difference_between_pipes_and_tubes.

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